I was watching a video about chiral chemistry and there it was explained that during the electrolysis of water if you coat the electrodes with some chiral coating, the efficiency is much higher. Now I was surprised but the explanation seems to be that oxygen has one so called non-binding electron pair. So that electron pair has two electrons with the same spin. Lately I found out that chiral molecules are able of electron spin selection, I have to admit I don’t understand just one tiny detail of how that works but on the other hand physics professors don’t understand electron spin. So compared to that I am doing fine. For readers who are relatively new: During the last 7 or 8 years I have been trying to kill the insight that electrons are magnetic monopoles. And all that difficult doing of the professional physics and chemistry professors is just plain crap. If electrons are magnetic monopoles, in that case it is of little use to describe the energy in terms of inner products of spin vectors. So a lot of physics models on magnetism are completely crap.
Anyway, oxygen is at first look totally not magnetic. But it seems that chemistry is not a total chaotic science at all because according to their moleluclar orbital theory it is explained that an O2 oxygen molecule has two unpaired electrons. See the next picture:
You can think of many experimental designs in order to prove that electrons are magnetic monopoles. If my insights are correct, each and every O2 molecule must act as a magnetic monopole. That means if you apply the correct magnetic field, you can repel oxygen molecules and attract the same molecules if you flip the applied magnetic field.
If you remark that if oxygen molecules act as magnetic monopole molecules, the scientists would have found out that decades ago… But my dear reader that is not how the human mind works. If the belief is that magnetic monopoles do not exist, that causes the mind to be blind as why electrons or oxygen molecules behave as they do.
For example the electron pair is neutral when it comes to magnetic fields, how do the professional professors explain that? Well they say that the opposite magnetic fields cancel each other out. So why don’t they see they are telling crap? If the electron is a tiny magnet with a north and a south pole, isn’t that magnetically neutral to begin with? So why is the unpaired electron not magnetically neutral? At that point they begin telling stuff like ‘anti alignment’, the Pauli exclusion principle and most of all ‘quantum numbers’. It all doesn’t add up, it is crap.
That is what I had to say on this tiny detail: Likely each and every oxygen molecule with such a non binding electron pair in it will act as a magnetic monopole…
Quantum computing looks like a good idea when it comes to simulation of quantum stuff like chemical reactions. But if your basic assumption of electrons being ‘tiny magnets’ it will all run from the rails if in the future it is found out that electrons are magnetic monopoles just like they are electric monopoles. Lately I have been joking that the only place in the universe where electron spin gets flipped is inside the heads of our professional physics professors. I think there are two kinds of electrons, one with a magnetic north charge and the other with a magnetic south charge. For the time being I think this magnetic charge is permanent so there is no way or mechanism that turns a south charge electron in a north charged and vice versa. Doing chemistry on a computer on the level of individual electrons and nuclei consumes an awful lot of computer resources. To focus the mind say you have a molecule with 100 to 150 electrons and some nuclei. The Coulomb forces alone are hard to simulate. But the way the magnetic forces must be done with the ‘tiny magnet’ model for electron spin is even much more horrible; in principle you have to calculate 100 to 150 vectors representing the bipolar magnetism of the electron. So this is all horribly complicated. Yet if electrons are magnetic monopoles, calculating a simulation for the magnetic forces should be of the same order of computer recourses as the Coulomb forces. That still is not very appealing but it is less worse as the Google engineers do it for the most simple atom there is in our universe: The hydrogen molecule made of two protons and one electron pair (the pair has opposite magnetic charges my dear reader, that is more logical as ‘opposite spins’ or for that matter ‘quantum numbers’). The horror is that physics but also chemistry professors seem to think that in the electron pair every particle is in a super position of spin up and spin down. That is where that stuff like “If I separate the two quantum particles and I take one to the Andromeda galaxy and measure it’s spin in the vertical direction, instantantly the spin of the particle left behind will be the opposite“. And why don’t they never say that for a hydrogen atom? After all these are two quantum particles to but are these two particles that are both in a super position of their positive and negative electrical charges? Is the mass of both particles not defined but is either the proton mass or the electron mass? Most people will say that is mumbo jumbo. The next picture is from a video I will show you below, likely all these Google people think that electrons are tiny magnets. So that is an amzing amount of salary costs wasted year in year out.
The Google view on electron magnetism is very different from mine where I like to keep it simple by stating electrons are magnetic monopoles. But they can make it much more complicated without any reason at all, in the next picture you see one of those singlet states and the chemistry folks have found out that an electron pair is ‘non binding’ if the two electrons have the same spin. If they have the same spin they don’t bond? And non of the chemistry weirdo’s remark that in a permanent magnet the spins must point in the same direction to make some magnetic bonding… Why does nobody see this is all not very logical and that this ‘tiny magnet’ stuff is just not true because it leads to all kinds of contradictions? Why are they so fucking stupid?
Let’s proceed with the second screen shot ensemble:
Lets try to hang in the Google video.
So far for this Google stuff. Luckily IBM is also very good at donating a coin of quantum wisdom. Lately we had a Noble prize in physics for faster than light quantum teleportation of quantum properties like photon properties… I am not saying all this Bell inequality stuff is impossible, all I am saying is an electron cannot be in a superposition of spin up and spin down because electrons carry a permanent magnetic charge.
The IBM video was so bad that it became funny and some kind of parody. Here is another superposition of screen shots.
Yesterday I did the same explanation on the other website and today I thought why not post that picture on this website too. Years ago when I met this giant effect for the first time I relatively soon figuered out that if my view on electrons as being magnetic monopoles is true, the giant magneto effect is one of the best examples of this. The giant magneto effect is important because this was the basis of making very small magnetic sensors and as such those old spinning hard disk in your computer could suddenly contain much more bits & bytes. So you might think that understanding electron spin is an important thing if it lays at the basis of so much technology. Yet important or not, the weirdo’s from the universities keep on talking about electron spin as it was a tiny magnet.
Anyway, the giant magneto effect is about the resistance an electrical current meets when passing through a multi-layered semi conductor material. If we assume that electrons are not fucking stupid tiny magnets but are always magnetic monopoles that never ‘flip’ their spin, all of a sudden things become logical. I have only one picture to show to you, it was the one I made yesterday and in the upper half of that picture it is supposed there is an electrical current, say electrons going from the left to the right.
The giant magneto resistance effect says that if the two outer layers have opposite magnetic directions, there is more electrical resistance…
Please remark this is logical if electrons are magnetic monopoles; if they meet two different magnetic charges about 100% of these electrons feel some kind of resistance. If the two magnetic layers have the same ‘orientation’ as they say, oops the electrical current is capped by at most 50%.
Let me ask the fucked up physics professors the next question: Can you please use you stupid ‘tiny magnet’ theory explaining why the electrons in the lower half of this picture meet more electrical resistance?
Likely you can’t and that is why you are fucking stupid.
Just like you are fucking stupid when you ‘explain’ why an electron pair must have opposite spin numbers. That is Pauli’s exclusion principle…
Well good luck my dear physics professors with being stupid. Is that the way your brain runs all of the time? I guess it is and it will be for many more years to come.
The last week I have been stuck in a writers block. I started writing on another post on the Pythagoras matrix version stuff and I just don’t know how to proceed. On the one hand I want to tell a cute so called ‘weird root formula’ while I want to avoid using that +/- scheme that is difficult to explain and has nothing to do with what I wanted to say.
May be I put the stuff I don’t want to talk about in a separate appendix or so. That sounded like a good idea two weeks ago but I’m still not working on it…
But it is about time for a new post and because my own Pythagoras stuff is glued to my writers block, the mathologer had a new video out about Pythagoras stuff the mathologer’s way. If you have seen vids from the mathologer before, you know he likes visual proofs to back up the math involved. The mathologer works very differently from me, I got hooked up to that matrix version earlier this year while he is doing stuff like trithagoras in a very cute manner.
The video is about half an hour long, just pick what you like or what you need and move on to other things. Digesting all stuff in a video from the mathologer always takes more time as the video is long! So you are not looking at just another insignificant idiot like me…;)
The next video is from Michael Penn. Now Michael has that typical American attitude of putting out one video a day. Often they are not bad if you take into consideration this must be done every 24 hours. But his treatment of (x + y)^n = x^n + y^n is just horrible. If you look like Michael for solutions on the real line it is easy to understand this cannot work. Yet last year all my counter examples to the last theorem of Pierre de Fermat were always based on this (x + y)^n = x^n + y^n equation. Take for example the natural numbers modulo 35. In this simple case we already have a cute counter example to the last theorem of Pierre de Fermate, namely: 12^n = 5^n + 7^n mod 35.
Why did Michael choose this fucking stupid space of real numbers for this equation that is the basis of a lot of counter examples to the last theorem of Pierre de Fermat? May be the speed of new videos is a thing here.
The Royal Institution had a new video out from somebody of that Australian group that wants to build a quantum computer based on electron spin. The official version of electron and nuclear spin is that it is a tiny magnet, that is what I name the “tiny magnet model”. I think that is nonsense because this tiny magnet model leads to dozens and dozens of problems that are just not logical if electrons are in fact tiny magnets. The last years more and more I wonder why those physics professors themselves don’t see all those holes in their version of electron spin. It is not a secret that I think electrons are magnetic monopoles, as such they have a one pole magnetic charge and until proven otherwise my understanding is that this charge is permanent. That means there are two kinds of electrons, one kind with say north pole magnetic charge and a kind with south pole magnetic charge.
When about seven years ago I came across the results of the Stern-Gerlach experiment from 1922, after a bit of thinking my estimation was that likely electrons are magnetic monopoles. For years I tried to shoot holes into that idea of magnetic monopoles, but that always failed and after a few years I accepted the idea.
In this post I want to look explicitely at why there are three spectral lines in that what mysteriously is named a spin one particle. With a spin one particle as shown in the video, they mean an atom with two unpaired electrons.
One of the many dozen things wrong with the tiny magnet model is as next: The Stern-Gerlach experiment does a beam of silver atoms split into two beams, the explanation for the opposing acceleration is that an inhomogeneous magnetic field is used together with the very mysterious property of electrons “anti-aligning” theselves with this applied magnetic field. But in a lot of other things, say the energy levels of electrons in atoms under the Zeeman effect, you never see a gradient of the magnetic field but straight in your face the actual strength of the magnetic field. That is one of the many things that is not very logical.
Lets start with some validation that David Jamieson is a believer of the church of the tiny magnets:
If you accept that electrons are not tiny magnets a lot of solar phenomena become better understandable. If you realize that if you have a cylindrical shaped portion of plasma and that rotates along it’s central axis, it will spit out a lot of electrons and because that column or cylinder is now very positively charged the magnetic field it creates becomes much more stronger. That is precisely what we observe with all those flares and stuff.
Well for seven years on a row people like David are not interested at all. So one way or the other you just cannot claim these people are scientists, in my view it is a bunch of weirdo’s married to some form of weird groupthink. The groupthink is that all things must be tiny magnets, they have zero experimental proof for that so these people are weird.
But lets not dive into politics and why we pay these weirdo’s a tax payer funded salary, lets go into what they can do good: spectral analysis. Now sun spots are places with strong magnetic fields (rotating column or cylinder kind of stuff) and in the picture below they take a line over such a sun spot and look at the spectrum of a particular frequency. Remark that a line here is the projection of a plane so you can have many contributions into the end result, so why do we see three spectral lines?
Ok, what does David mean with a spin one particle? That’s not a photon but he means an atom with two unpaired electrons. The light you see is from electrons jumping down in energy in those atoms (I don’t know what element, what atom it is). But the situation is easy to understand:
1) Some of those atoms have two unpaired north pole electrons, 2) Some of those atoms have two unpaired south pole electrons, and 3) Some of those atoms have two different electrons.
That would explain the two outer lines, the middle line must be caused by electron jumps where there is much less magnetic field.
Please remark that the ‘line’ is actually a plane so the electron emissions can come from any height.
The sun my dear reader is a complicated thing, but if people like David can’t explain stuff like the corona temperature why should you believe his version of electron spin? It is time to go to the video, at about 32 minutes into the video the spin stuff starts:
That was it for this update. Thanks for your attention, think well and live well.
Last week I finally found out after seven years that there is indeed at least one repeated Stern-Gerlach experiment. It is well known in quantum mechanics that the Pauli matrices can be used to calculate the probabilities for finding electrons into a particular spin state. And in a repeated SG-experiment, if you turn the magnetic field 90 degrees the Pauli stuff says it is 50/50 divided. If you example you first applied a vertical magnetic field and after that some horizontal magnetic field, you should get 50% of the electrons having spin left and 50% spin right.
But if you try to do a search on a term like “Experimental proof for the Pauli matrices” or just “Repeated Stern-Gerlach experiment” never ever serious popped up in the last seven years.
Seven years ago I arrived at the conclusion that it is impossible that electrons are “tiny magnets” or for that matter have a bipolar magnetic field. A lot of things can be explained much better and more logical compared to mystifications like the Pauli exclusion principle. If electrons are magnetic monopoles, in that case it is logical that if they form pairs they must have opposite magnetic charges. And with the electron pair we already have a detail where the ususal model of electrons as “tiny magnets” fails; two macroscopic magnets are attracking only if their magnetic fields are aligned. If two macro magnets are anti-aligned, they repel. So how the hell is it possible that two electrons only form a pair if they have opposite spins, only if they anti-align? What I still don’t understand is why people like Pauli, Einstein, Feynman etc etc never remarked that it is nonsense to suppose that electrons are tiny magnets. Remark there is zero experimental proof for the assumption that electrons are tiny magnets. They just projected the Gauss law for magnetism on electrons without ever remarking you must have some fucking experimental proof. In the next picture you can see the experimental setup; you see two Stern-Gerlach experiments and in the middle is a inner rotation chamber where they try to flip the spin of the electrons.
So Einstein must have given it a thought, this SG-experiment and never realized the impossibility of the Gauss law for magnetism for electrons.
Last week I found a nice pdf upon the Frisch-Segrè experiment and I would like to quote a few hilarious things from it:
“The physical mechanism responsible for the alignment of the silver atoms remained and remains a mystery” and quoting Feynman, “… instead of trying to give you a theoretical explanation, we will just say that you are stuck with the result of this experiment … ”
This is also the first time that I see this ‘problem’ actually stated; how is it possible that a tiny thing like an electron anti-aligns it’s spin with the applied external magnetic field? That is very very strange, for example water molecules are tiny electric dipoles and if they meet an electric field the only thing they want to do is to align themselves with that electric field. Why do electrons gain potential energy in a magnetic field?
To understand how crazy this is: If you go outside and throw away a bunch of rocks, do half of those fall to earth and the other half flies into space? Nope, in the end all rocks try to get at the state of minimal potential energy.
But if you view electrons as magnetic monopoles this weird detail of climbing in potential energy is’n there any longer: an electron with say a north pole magnetic charge will always go from the north pole to the south pole of a macroscopic magnetic field. And vice versa for an electron with a south pole magnetic charge. The weird energy problem isn’t there any longer. You can compare that to a bunch of electrons and protons entering an electric field; they feel opposite forces and that is how they both lower their potential energy.
At last let me give you the pdf. This pdf is not very useful because it is written by one of those weirdo’s that keep on believing that electrons are tiny magnets…
Once more I want to remark that if you see a physics professor doing his or her blah blah blah thing on electron spin, they just don’t have any serious experimental proof that electrons actually have two magnetic poles. Furthermore, none of them has a problem with that. So why are we funding these weirdo’s with tax payer money?
Ok, that was it for this post. Thanks for your attention.
Of course you can’t correct every typo you make. But now it was in the heart result of the previous post so it must be corrected. In the previous post I showed you a way of calculating the determinant of a 4×4 matrix using 2×2 minors. As such I used things like a ‘complementary minor’ inside a square matrix. The typo is easy to understand, it must not be comp(| AB12 |) but this: | comp( AB12)|. The vertical stripes mean you must take the determinant of what’s between them so the typo is that I took the determinant too fast. First you must find the complementary minor and after that take the determinant…
This correctional post is two pictures long, first I show you the faulty one and after that the correct one.
My guess is most readers who tried to understand the previous update did find for themselves it was very faulty. But I could not just ignore it because it was in the main result although the main result is not earth shaking math. Anyway it is what it is and now it’s corrected.
I remember that in the past a few times I tried to write determinants of say a nxn matrix in determinants of blocks of that matrix. It always failed but now I understand the way the matrix version of the theorem of Pythagoras goes, all of a sudden it is a piece of cake. In this post I only give an example of a 4×4 matrix. If you take the first two columns of such a matrix, say AB, this is now a 4×2 matrix with six 2×2 minors in it. If we name the last two columns as CD, for every 2×2 minor in AB there is a corresponding complementary 2×2 minor in CD. For example if we pick the left upper 2×2 minor in our matrix ABCD, it’s complement is the right lower 2×2 minor at the bottom of CD. If you take the determinants of those minors and multiply them against the determinants of their complements, add it all up with a suitable +/- pattern and voila: that must be the determinant of the whole 4×4 matrix.
This method could more or less easily expanded to larger matrices, but I think it is hard to prove the +/- pattern you need for the minors of larger matrices. Because I am such a dumb person I expected that half of my six 2×2 minors pick up a minus sign and the other half a plus sign. Just like you have when you develop a 4×4 determinant along a row or column of that matix. I was wrong, it is a bit more subtle once more confirming I am a very very dumb person.
I skipped giving you the alternative way of calculating determinants: The determinant is also the sum of so called signed permutations on the indices of their entries. If you have never seen that I advice you to look it up on the internet.
Because I skipped excisting knowledge widely available already, I was able to do the calculation in just four images! So it is a short post. Ok ok I also left out how I did it in detail because writing out a 4×4 determinant already has 24 terms with each four factors. That’s why it is only four pictures long in this post…
If you want you can also use that expression as the determinant as a sum of signed permutations. It is a very cute formula. Wiki title: Leibniz formula for determinants. And a four minute video, it starts a bit slow but the guy manages to put in most of the important details in just four minutes:
Ok, that was it for this post. I filed it under the category ‘Pythagoras stuff’ because I tried similar stuff in the past but only with the knowledge into the matrix version of the Pythagoras theorem, it all becomes a bit more easy to do.
To be honest this post is not carefully thought through. I felt like starting to write and at first I wanted to write it more into the direction of a proof based on the volumes of the parallelepiped and it’s expansion columns. But then I realized that my cute calculating scheme of turning a nxd matrix A into a square nxn matrix AP could go wrong. So I wanted to address that detail too but I hadn’t thought it out enough.
The answer to why it can go wrong is rather beautiful: Take any nxd matrix (of course the number of columns cannot exceed n because that is not a proper d-dimensional parallelepiped) say a 10×3 matrix. The three columns span a parallelepiped in 10-dimensional real space. The ‘smallest’ parallelepiped that still has a three dimensional volume is one of the many minors possible in the 10×3 matrix. So with ‘smallest’ I mean the parallelepiped that uses the least number of coordinates in our 10-dimensional space. Now in my calculating scheme, an algorithm if you want, I said you to start at the top of the matrix A and add more and more columns. But if A is made of just one 3×3 minor, say at the bottom of A, it is crystal clear my calculating scheme goes wrong because it now produces only zero columns.
And if that happens, when in the end you take the determinant of the square matix AP you get zero and of course that is wrong. These are exceptional cases, but it has to be addressed.
Of course there is no important reason for the calculation scheme to start at the top of the matrix, just start at the position of the lone 3×3 minor. In general: If you start with a nxd matrix, ensure your first expansion column is not a zero column. After that the next expansions all should go fine.
This post is five pictures long. If you haven’t mastered the calculation scheme of how to turn a non-square matrix into a square matrix you must first look up previous posts until you have a more or less clear mental picture of what is going on with this.
Ok, that was it for this post on the highly beautiful calculation scheme for the volumes of parallelepipeda in higher dimensions.
To be honest I like the Unzicker guy; he is from Germany I believe and he alsways attacks the standard model for particles. According to him there are zillions of problems with the standard model and likely he is right with that. But he fully buys the crap that electrons must be magnetic dipoles without any experimental confirmation at all. So that I post a video of him talking weird stuff about electrons is not a way to rediculize him. On the contrary, because he always tries to attack the idea’s inside the stadard model he in itself is a perfect example as why the physics community swallows all those weird explanations upon electron spin.
For myself speaking I think that electrons don’t have their spins ‘up’ or ‘down’. I don’t think that they are tiny magnets with two magnetic poles but in itself they are magnetic monopoles that come with only one magnetic charge… My estimate is that this magnetic charge is a permanent charge, that means there is no such thing as spin flip of an individual electron.
In the Unzicker video Alexander asks for help about differentiation on the quaternions or so. Well have I done my utmost best to craft all kinds of spaces where you can integate and differentiate, stuff like 3D complex numbers, 4D complex numbers etc, comes a weirdo along asking about the quaternions… On quaternions differentiating is a true horror and that is caused by the property that in general the quaternions don’t commute. I wrote a one picture long explanation for that. The problem is that differentiation on say the square function on the quaternions destroys information. That is why there is no so called ‘Complex analysis on the quaternions’, it just doesn’t exist. Ok, lets go to the first video. It is not that very good because he constantly throws in a lot of terms like SO2 and SO3, but for an audience like physics people that is allowed of course.
Because it is still the year 2022, it is still one hundred years back that the Stern-Gerlach experiment was done. The next short video is relatively good in it’s kind; there are a lot of videos’s out there about the SG experiment and most are worse. In this video from some German at least there are some more explanation like it is not the Lorentz force because these are silver atoms. But as always in all explanations out there it misses as why exactly electrons do anti-align themselves with the applied external magnetic field. For example water molecules are a tiny electric dipole, if you apply an electric field to clean water, all these tiny electric dipoles for 100% align with the electric field. So why do electrons not do that?
As always: electrons being magnetic monopoles is a far better explanation for what we observe. But all these physics people, one hundred percent of them have no problem at all when there is no experimental evidence that electrons are indeed ‘tiny magnets’. That is what I still don’t understand: Why don’t they see that their official explanations are not very logical when you start thinking on these explanations? Why this weird behavior?
Ok, lets hang in why differentiation on the quaternions is a total horror.
The last video is a short interview with John Wheeler where he explains the concept of positrons being electrons that travel back in time. At some point John talks about an electron and positron meeting and anihilate each other. Well it has to be remarked that this doesn’t always happen. They can scatter too and why could that be? Well it fits with my simple model as electrons being magnetic monopoles. Positrons and electrons only kill each other if they have also the opposite magnetic charge…
Ok, that was it for this post. Thanks for your attention.