Category Archives: 3D complex numbers

A simple theorem on the zero’s of polynomials on the space of 3D complex numbers.

In this post we look in detail at a very simple yet important polynomial namely

p(X) = X (X – 1).

Why does it have four zero’s in the space of 3D complex numbers? Well if you solve for the zero’s of p so try to solve p(X) = 0, that is you are looking for all numbers such that X^2 = X.
These numbers are their own square, on the real line or on the complex plane there are only two numbers that are their own square namely 0 and 1.
On the space of 3D complex numbers we also have an exponential circle and the midpoint of that circle is the famous number alpha. It is a cakewalk to calculate that alpha is it’s own square just like (1 – alpha).

This post is four pictures long in the size 550×825 pixels so it is not such a long read this time. In case you are not familiar with this number alpha, use the search function on this website and search for the post “Seven properties of the number alpha”. Of course since it is math you will also need a few days time of thinking the stuff out, after all the human brain is not very good at mathematics…
Well have fun reading it.

The last crazy calculation shows that a polynomial in it’s factor representation is not unique. Those zero’s at zeta one and zeta two are clearly different from 0 and 1 but they give rise to the same polynomial.

At last I want to remark that unlike on the complex plane there is no clean cut way to tell how many zero’s a given polymial will have. On the complex plane it is standard knowledge that an n-degree polynomial always has n roots (although these roots can all have the same value). But on the complex 3D numbers it is more like the situation on the real line. On the real line the polynomial p(x) = x^2 + 1 has no solution just like it has no solution on the space of 3D complex numbers.
That was it for this post, thanks for your attention.

Comparing the two sphere-cone equations.

This channel is of course not meant for political statements but this fucking war is a fucking distraction from doing math. While writing this post in small pieces I was constantly dissatisfied with the level of math (too simple, done too often in the past etc). But when I was finished and read it all over, all in all it was not bad. It is a short oversight of how to find shere-cone equations and once more how to find a conjugate.
And once more: The math professors are doing it wrong when it comes to finding the conjugate for 32 years now & the clock keeps on ticking. On the one hand this is remarkable because if you do internet searches a lot of people understand that the Jacobian matrix should be the matrix representation for the derivative of a complex valued function in say three dimensional space. So that goes good, but when it comes to taking the conjugate for some strage reason they all keep on doing it wrong wrong and wrong again so they will never find serious math when it comes to number systems outside the complex plane or for that matter the quaternions.

The setup of this post is as next:
1) Explaining (once more) how to find the conjugate.
2) Calculating the two sphere-cone equations.
3) The solution of these S-C equations is the exponential circle that is,
4) parametrisized by three so called coordinate functions that we
5) substitute into both S-C equations in order to get
6) just one equation.

Basically this says that the complex and circular multiplication on our beloved three dimensional space are ‘very similar’. Just like that old problem of solving X^2 = -1 is impossible in these spaces while the cubic problem of X^3 = -1 has only trivial solutions like basis vectors. That too is ‘very similar’ behaviour.

Anyway this post is six pictures long.

That was it for this post on my beloved three dimensional complex numbers.

Addendum to the previous post: The new de Moivre identity for the 3D circular numbers + 2 videos.

I know I know I have published stuff like this before and over again. But that was also years ago and now I do it again it is still not boring to me. After all the professional math professors still are not capable of finding those beautiful exponential circles and curves simply because they all imitate each other. And they imitate each other with how to use and find a so called conjugate. And if you use the conjugate only as some form of ‘flipping a number into the real axis’ all your calculation will turn into garbage. Anyway by sheer coincidence I came across two videos of math folks doing it all wrong. One of the videos is even about the 3D circular numbers although that guy names them triplex numbers.

You can do a lot with exponential circles and curves. A very basic thing is making new de Moivre identities. From a historical point of view these are important because the original de Moivre identity predates the first exponential circle from Euler by about 50 years. In that sense new de Moivre identities are very seldom so you might expect some interest of the professional math community…

Come on, give me a break, professional math professors do a lot of stuff but paying attention to new de Moivre identities is not among what they do. But that is well known so lets move on to the four pictures of our update. After that I will show you the two video’s.

Let us proceed with the two video’s. Below you see a picture from the first video that is about 3D circular numbers and of course the conjugate is done wrong because math folks can only do that detail wrong:

Below you can see the video:

By all standards the above video is very good. Ok the conjugate is not correct and may be the logarithm is handled very sloppy because a good log is also a way to craft exponential circles. But hey: after 30 years I have learned not to complain that much…

The next video is from Michael Penn. He has lots of videos out and if you watch them you might think there is nothing wrong with that guy. And yes most of the time there is nothing wrong with him until he starts doing all kinds of algebra’s and of course doing the conjugate thing wrong. Michael is doing only two dimensional albebra’s in the next video but if you deviate from the complex plane very soon you must use the conjugate as it is supposed to be: The upper row of the matrix representation.

Here a screen shot with the content of the crimes commited:

Most of his other video’s are better, but his knowledge is just a reflection of what professional math professors think about conjugation. It is always just a flip in the real axis.

Here is his vid:

Ok, that was it for this appendix to the previous post.

Once more: The sphere-cone equation.

It is past midnight, this evening I brewed hopefully a lovely beer. It is late so let me keep the intro short. The last time I often lack stuff for new posts because most of the theory of 3D complex and circular numbers has been posted in this collection of 200+ posts. And you cannot keep it repeating over and over again, if all those years in the past the math professionals did just nothing, why would they change their behaviour in the future? Beside that I do not want have anything to do with them any more, it is and stays a collection of overpaid weirdo’s and there is nothing that can change that.
On the other hand one of the most famous expressions in math is and stays the exponential circle in the complex plane.
That stuff like e^it = cos t + isin t is what makes many hearts beat a tiny bit faster. So when someone comes along stating that he found an exponential circle in spaces like 3D complex numbers, you might expect some kind of attention. But no, once more the math professionals prove they are not very professional. Whatever happens over there I do not know. May be they think because they could not find this in about 350 years no one can so it must all be faulty. For me it was a big disappointment to get discriminated so much, on the other hand it validates that math professors just are not scientists. Ok they have their salary, their social standing, their list of publications and so on and so on. But putting lickstick on a pig does not make it a shining beauty, it stays a pig. So a math professor can have his or her prized title of professor, that does not make such a person a scientist of course. At best they show some form of imitating how a scientist should behave but again does such behaviour make these people scientists?
Anyway a couple of days back at the end of a long day I typed in a search phrase in a website with the cute name duckduckgo.com. Sometimes I check if websites like that track this very website and I just searched for “3D complex numbers”. The first picture that emerged was indeed from this website and it was from the year 2017. I looked at it and yes deep in my brain it said I had seen it before but what was it about? Well it was the product of two coordinate functions of the exponential circle in 3D. It is a very cute graph, you can compare it to say the product of the sine and cosine function in the complex plane.
So I want to avoid repeating all that has been written in the past of this website but why not one more post about the 3D exponential circles?

In the end I decided to show you how likely one of those deeply incompetent “professional” math professors would handle the concept of conjugation. Of course one hundred % of these idiots and imbeciles would do it as “This is just a flip in the real axis or in the x-axis” and totally spoil the shere-cone equation and only find weird garbage that indeed better cannot be published. After all our overpaid idiots still haven’t found the 3D complex numbers, I am still living on my tax payer unemployment benefit and life, well life will go on. But it is not only math, with physics there are similar problems and they all boil down to that often an idiot does not realize he or she is an idiot.

But let’s post the six pictures, may I will add an addendum in a few days, may be not. Here we go:

Isn’t that a cute graph or not?

Ok, may be in will write one more appendix about how these kind of coordinate functions of exponential circles give rise to also new de Moivre identities. That is of interest because the original de Moivre identity predates the Euler exponential circle by about 50 years.

Yet once more: Likely there is just nothing that will wake up the branch of overpaid weirdo’s known as the math professors…
So for today & late at night that was it.
Thanks for your attention.

Five highlights of the year 2021.

Despite my slowly detoriating health the last year was a remarkable fruitfull year when it comes to new stuff. So I selected five highlights and of course that is always a difficult thing. Two of the highlights are about magnetism and the other three are just math. Once more: The fact that I include two magnetic highlights does not mean I am trying to reach out to the physics community in any meaningful way. If these idiots and imbeciles keep on thinking that electrons have two magnetic poles, be my guest. There is plenty of space under the sun for completely conflicting insights: Idiots and imbciles thinking that electrons have two magnetic poles and more moderate down to earth people that simply remark: for such a bold claim you need some kind of experimental evidence that is convincing.
But 2021 was a very good year when it came to math; I found plenty of counter examples to the so called last theorem of Pierre de Fermat. I was able to make a small improvement on the so called little theorem of Fermat. A very important detail is that I was able to make those counter examples to the last theorem so simple that a lot of non math people can also understand it. That is important because if you craft your writings to stuff only math professors can understand, you will find yourself back in a world of silence. Whatever you do there is never any kind of response. These math professors were not capable of finding three or four dimensional complex numbers, they stay silent year in year out so I have nothing to do with them. In the year 2021 I classified the physics professors to be the same: Avoid these shitholes at all costs!

After having said that, this post has eight pictures of math text and it has the strange feature that I am constantly placing links of posts I wrote in the last year. So lets go:

Below you find the link to the 01 Jan 2021 post:
Once more: Zero reaction from the overpaid idiots & imbeciles.
This is the tau for the three dimensional circular numbers! Not for 3D complex numbers.
Next link contains the proof of the improved little theorem as posted on 20 April:
Here is that perfect animated gif once more:

I think that if you show the above animated gif to a physics professor and ask for an explanation, likely this person will say: “Oh you see the electrons aligning with the applied external magnetic field, this all is well understood and there is nothing new under the sun here”.
Of course that kind of ‘explanation’ is another bag of bs, after all the same people explain the results of the Stern-Gerlach experiment via the detail that every electron has a 50% probability that it will align with the applied external magnetic field (and of course 50% that it will anti-align). In my view that is not what we see here. As always in the last five+ years an explanation that electrons are magnetic monopoles with only one of the two possible magnetic charges is far more logical.

This year in the summer I wrote an oversight of all counter examples to the last theorem of Pierre de Fermat I had found until then. It became so long that in the end I had three posts on that oversight alone. I wrote it in such a way that is starts as easy as possible and going on it gets more and more complicated with the counter example from the space of four dimensional complex numbers as the last example. So I finished it and then I realized that I had forgotten the space of so called split complex numbers. In the language of this website the split complex numbers are two dimensional circular numbers. It is just like the complex plane with two dimensional numbers of the form z = x + iy, only now the square of the imaginary unit is +1 instead of i^2 = -1 as on the complex plane. So I made an appendix of that detail, I consider this detail important because it more or less demonstrates what I am doing in the 3D and 4D complex number spaces. So let me put in one more picture that is the appendix of the long post regarding the oversight of all counter examples found.

I hope this brings some clarity to the minds of math people.

All that is left is place a link to that very long oversight:

Ok, so far for what I consider the most significant highlights of the previous year. And oops, since I am a very chaotic person before I forget it: Have a happy 2022! It is time to say goodbye so think well and work well my dear reader.

De Padé approximations; why are they so good?

Already a few years back I wanted to write a post on the so called de Padé apprximations because they are so good at taking the logarithm of a matrix. For me the access to an internet application that calculated those logs from matrix representations was a very helpful thing to speed things up. It would have taken me much much longer to find the first exponential circle on the 3D complex numbers if I could not use such applets.
But in the year 2018 pure evil struck the internet: the last applets or websites having them disappeared to never come back. Ok by that time I had perfected my method of simply using matrix diagonalization for finding such logs of matrices. You can still find it easily if you do an internet search on ‘Calculation of the 7D number tau‘.
Yet in the beginning I only had such applets as found on the internet and I soon found out that using the so called de Padé approximation always gave much better results compared to say a Taylor approximation.
It is not very hard to understand how to perform such a de Padé approximation. Much harder to understand is how de Padé found them, after all it looks like a strike of genius if this works. The genius part is of course found in the stuff you can simply neglect in such approximations, at first it baffles the mind and later you just accept it that you are more stupid as de Padé was…;)
Anyway this week I stumbled upon a cute video and as such I decided to write a small post upon this de Padé stuff. (On the shelf are still a possible new way of making an antenna based on the 3D exponential circles and some updates on magnetism.)
So let us first take a look at the video, here we go:

As you see the basic idea is pretty simple: you use those two polynomials to ‘approximate’ that Taylor series and as a bonus you have a much better approximation of the original function. All in all this is amazing and it makes you wonder if there are methods out there that are even better compared to this de Padé approximation.

Now you can choose beforehand what degree polynomial you use in the nominator and denominator. There are plenty of situations where this brings a big benefit like in the video they point out the divergence problems of say the sine function that is bounded between +1 and -1 on the real axis. The Taylor approximations always go completely beserk outside some interval where they fit quite well. With the appropiate choice of the degrees of the polynomials in the de Padé approximation you can avoid this kind of stuff.
In my view the maker of the video should also have pointed out that a de Padé approximation can have it’s own troubles when you divide by zero. And when the original function never has such a pole at that point, the de Padé approximation also goes very bad. These de Padé approximations
are indeed much better compared to the average Taylor approximation but they are not from heaven. You still have to use your own brain and may be that is a good thing.

De Padé still rules in the year 2021, likely it was a good idea to start with.

In this post I did not cover the matrices and why a de Padé approximation of the logarithm of a matrix is good or bad. If you want to find exponential circles and curves for yourself, use those applets mostly on imaginary units who’s matrix representation has a determinant of +1. In case you want to find your very first exponential circle, solve the next problem:

Ok, it is late at night so let me hit that button ‘publish website’ and see you around.

Three video’s to kill the time in case you are bored to the bone…

A couple of days ago I started on a new post, it is mostly about elliptic curves and we will go and see what exactly happens if you plug in one of those counter examples to the last theorem of Pierre de Fermat. There is all kinds of weird stuff going on if you plug such counter example in such a ‘Frey elliptic curve’. I hope next week it will be finished.

In this post I would like to show you three video’s so let’s start that: In the first video a relatively good introduction to the last theorem of Fermat is given. One of the important details of that long proof is the relation between elliptic curves and so called modular forms. And now I understand a bit better as why math professors go bezerk on taking such an elliptic curve modulo a prime number; the number of solutions is related to a coefficient of such an associated modular form. It boggles the mind because what do those other coefficients mean? As always just around the corner is a new ocean of math waiting to get explored.

Anyway, I think that I can define such modular forms on the 3D complex and circular numbers too so may be that is stuff for a bunch of future posts. On the other hand the academic community is never ever interested in my work whatsoever so may be I will skip that whole thing too. As always it is better to do what you want and not what you think other people would like to see. The more or less crazy result is shown in the picture below and after that you can see the first video.

Yet it might be this does not work on the 3D complex numbers…

Next video: At MIT they love to make a fundamental fool of themselves by claiming that their version of a nuclear fusion reactor will be the first that puts power on the electricity grid… Ok ok, after five or six years I have terminated the magnetic pages on the other website because it dawned on me that the university people just don’t want to read my work. I have explained many many times that it is just impossible that electrons are magnetic dipoles but as usual nothing happens.
Oops, wasn’t it some years ago that Lockheed Martin came bragging out they would make mobile nuclear fusion reactors and by now (the year 2021) there would be many made already? Of course I would never work properly because at Lockheed Martin they to refuse to check if the idea’s of electron spin are actually correct. If electrons are magnetic monopoles all fusion reactors based on magnetic confinement will never work. Just look at Lockheed Martin: So much bragging but after all those years just nothing to show. Empty headed arrogant idiots is whart they are.

And now MIT thinks it is their time to brag because they have mastered much stronger magnetic fields with their new high temperature superconducting magnets. Yes well you can be smart on details like super conducting magnets but if you year in year out refuse to take a look at electron spin and is that Pauli matrix nonsense really true in experiments? If you refuse that year in year out, you are nothing but a full blown arrogant overpaid idiot. And you truly deserve the future failure that will be there: A stronger magnetic field only makes the plasma more turbulent faster. And your fantasies of being the first to put electricity on the grid? At best you are a pathetic joke.

MIT & me, are we mutual jokes to each other?
Just like ITER and the Wendelstein 7X this will not work!

It is very difficult to make a working nuclear fusion reactor on earth if you just don’t want to study the magnetic properties of electrons while you try to contain the plasma with magnetic fields. Oh the physics imbeciles and idiots think they understand plasma? They even do not understand why the solar corona is so hot and if year in year out I say that magnetic fields accelerate particles with a net magnetic charge, the idiots and imbeciles just neglect it because they are idiots and imbeciles.

The third video is about a truly Hercules task: Making a realistic model of the sun so that can run in computer simulations… If humanity is still around 10 thousand years from now may be they have figured it out but the sun is such a complicated thing it just cannot be understood in a couple of decades. There is so much about the sun that is hard to understand. For example a number of years ago using the idea that electrons are magnetic monopoles, it thought that rotating plasma like in some tornado kind of structure is all you need to get extremely strong magnetic fields. But I never ever wrote down only one word in that direction. Anyway about a full year later I learned about the rotational differential for the sun: at the equator it spins much faster as it does on the poles. And that would definitely give rise to a lot of those tornade like structurs that must be below the sun spots.
Of course nothing happens because of ‘university people’ and at present day I do not give a shit any longer. I am 100% through with idiots and imbeciles like that. For me it only counts that I know, that I have figured out something and trying to communicate that to a bunch of overpaid highly absorbed in their giant ego’s idiots and imbeciles is a thing I just stopped doing. If it is MIT, ITER or Max Planck idiots and imbeciles, why should I care?

Ok, that was it for this post. If you are not related to a university or academia thanks for your attention. And to the university shitholes: please go fuck yourselves somewhere we don’t have to watch it.

Oversight of all counter examples to the last theorem of Pierre de Fermat, Part 3.

It is late at night, my computer clock says it is 1.01 on a Sunday night. But I am all alone so why not post this update? This post does not have much mathematical depth, it is all very easy to understand if you know what split complex numbers are.
In the language of this website, the split complex numbers are the 2D circular numbers, In the past I named a particular set of numbers complex or circular. I did choose for circular because the matrix representations of circular numbers are the so called circulant matrices. It is always better to give mathematical stuff some kind of functional name so people can make sense of what the stuff is about. For me no silly names like ‘3D Venema positive numbers’ or ‘3D Venema complex numbers’. In math the objects should have names that describe them, the name of a person should not be hanged on such an object. For example the Cayley-Hamilton theorem is a total stupid name, the names of the humans who wrote it out are not relevant at all. Further reading on circulant matrices: Circulant matrix.
I also have a wiki on split complex numbers for you, but like all common sources they have the conjugate completely wrong. Professional math professors always think that taking a conjugate is just replacing a + by a – but that is just too simplistic. That’s one of the many reasons they never found 3D complex numbers for themselves, if you do that conjugate thing in the silly way all your 3D complex math does not amount to much…
Link: Split-complex number.

This is the last part on this oversight of counter examples to the last theorem of Pierre de Fermat and it contains only the two dimensional split complex numbers. When I wrote the previous post I realized that I had completely forgetten about the 2D split numbers. And indeed the math results as found in this post are not very deep, it’s importance lies in the fact that the counter examples now are unbounded. All counter examples based on modular arithmetic are always bounded, periodic to be precise, so professional math professors could use that as a reason to declare that all a bunch of nonsense because the real integers are unbounded. And my other counter examples that are unbounded are only on 3D complex & circular number spaces and the 4D complex numbers so that will be neglected and talked into insignificance because ‘That is not serious math’ or whatever kind of nonsense those shitholes come up with.

All in all despite the lack of mathematical depth I am very satisfied with this very short update. The 2D split numbers have a history of say 170 years so all those smart math assholes can think a bit about why they never formulated such simple counter examples to the last theorem of Fermat… May be the simplicity of the math results posted is a good thing in the long run: compare it to just the natural numbers or the counting numbers. That is a set of numbers that is very simple too, but they contain prime numbers and all of a sudden you can ask thousands and thousands of complicated and difficult questions about natural numbers. So I am not ashamed at all by the lack of math depth in this post, I only point to the fact that over the course of 170 years all those professional math professors never found counter examples on that space.

This post is just 3 pictures long although I had to enlarge the lastest one a little bit. The first two pictures are 550×825 pixels and the last one is 550×975 pixels. Here we go:

That was it for this post, one of the details as why this post is significant is the use of those projector numbers. You will find that nowhere on the entire internet just like the use of 3D complex numbers is totally zero. Let’s leave it with that, likely the next post is about magnetism and guess what? The physics professors still think there is no need at all to give experimental proof to their idea of the electron having two magnetic poles. So it are not only the math professors that are the overpaid idiots in this little world of monkeys that think they are the masters of the planet.

Oversight of all counter examples to the last theorem of Pierre de Fermat, Part 2.

Post number 191 already so it will be relatively easy to make it to post number 200 this year. If you think about it, the last 190 posts together form a nice bunch of mathematics.
In this post we will pick on where we left it in the last post; we start with the three dimensional complex and circular numbers. In the introduction I explain how the stuff with a pair of divisors of zero works and from there it is plain sailing so to say. When back in Jan of this year I constructed the first counter example to the last theorem of Pierre de Fermat I considered it a bit ‘non math’ because it was so easy. And when one or two days later I made the first counter example using modular arithmetic I was really hesitant to post it because it was all so utterly simple…
But now half a year later it has dawned on me that all those professional math professors live up to their reputation of being overpaid under performers because in a half year of time I could find not one counter example on our beloved internet. And when these people write down some calculations that could serve as a counter example, they never say so and use it only for other purposes like proving the little theorem of Fermat. It has to be remarked however that in the past three centuries of time, when people tried to find counter examples, they likely started with the usual integers from the real line and as such tried to find counter examples. Of course that failed and this is not because they are stupid or so. It is the lack of number spaces they understand or know about that prevented them in finding counter examples to the last theorem of Pierre de Fermat.
If you do not know anything about 3D complex or circular numbers, you are not a stupid person if you cannot find counter examples to the last theorem. But you are definitely very very stupid if you do not want to study 3D complex numbers, if you refuse that it proves you have limited mathematical insights and as such likely all your other math works will be limited in long term value too.
While writing this post all of a sudden I realized I skipped at least one space where counter examples are to be found: It is on the space of so called split complex numbers. I did not invent that space, that was done by the math professors. The split complex numbers are a 2D structure just like the complex plane but instead of i^2 = -1, on the split complex plane the multiplication is ruled by i^2 = 1. Likely I will write a small post about the split complex number space. (Of course in terms of the language of this website, the 2D split complex numbers are the 2D circular numbers.)

This post is 8 pictures long, I kept on to number them according to the previous post so we start at picture number 11. They are all in the size of 825×550 pixels. I hope it is worth of your time. Here we go:

In this post I used only ‘my own spaces’ like 3D complex and circular numbers and the 4D complex numbers. As such it will be 100% sure the math professionals will 100% not react on it. Even after 30 years these incompetents are not able to judge if there is any mathematical value in spaces like that. Why do we fork out so much tax payer money to those weirdo’s? After all it is a whole lot of tax payer money for a return of almost nothing. Ok ok a lot of math professors also give lectures in math to other studies like physics so not all tax payer money is 100% wasted but all in all the math professors are a bunch of non-performers.

I think I will write a small post about the 2D split complex numbers because that is a space discovered by the math pro’s. So for them we will have as counter examples to the last theorem of Pierre de Fermat all that modulo calculus together with the future post on the split complex numbers. Not that this will give a reaction from the math pro’s but it will make clear you just cannot blame me for the non reactive nature of the incompetents; the blame should go to those who deserve it… Or not?

May be the next post is about magnetism and only after that I will post the split complex number details. We’ll see, anyway if you made it untill here thanks for your attention and I hope you learned a bit from the counter examples to the last theorem of Pierre de Fermat.

Why can’t I find counter examples to Fermat’s last theorem on the internet?

After a few weeks it is finally dawning on me that it might very well be possible that the professional math people just do not have a clue about how easy it is to find counter examples to the FLT. (FLT = Fermat’s Last Theorem.) That is hard to digest because it is so utterly simple to do and understand on those rings of integers modulo n.
But I did not search long and deep and I skipped places like the preprint archive and only used a bit of the Google thing. And if you use the Google thing of course you get more results from extravert people. That skews the results of course because for extraverts talking is much more important compared to the content of what you are talking or communicating. That is the problem with extraverts; they might be highly social but they pay a severe price for that: their thinking will always be shallow and never some stuff deeply thought through…

As far as I know rings of the integers modulo n are not studied very much. Of course the additive groups modulo n are studied and the multiplicative groups modulo n are studied but when it comes to rings all of a sudden it is silent always everywhere. And now I am looking at it myself I am surprised how much similarity there is between those kind of rings and the 3D complex & circular numbers. Of course they are very different objects of study but you can all chop them in two parts: The numbers that are invertible versus the set of non-invertibles. For example in the ring of integers modulo 15 the prime factors of 15 are 3 and 5. And those prime factors are the non-invertibles inside this ring. This has all kinds of interesting math results, for example take the (exponential) orbit of 3. That is the sequence of powers of 3 like in: 3, 3^2 = 9, 3^3 = 27 = 12 (mod 15), 3^4 = 36 = 6 (mod 15) and 3^5 = 18 = 3. As you see this orbit avoids the number 1 because if it would pass through 1 you would have found an inverse of 3 inside our ring and that is not possible because 3 is a non invertible number…

Likely my next post will be about such stuff, I am still a bit hesitant about it because it is all so utterly simple but you must never underestimate how dumb the overpaid math professors can be: Just neglecting rings modulo n could very well be a common thing over there while in the meantime they try to act as a high IQ person by stating ‘We are doing the Langlands program’ & and more of that advanced blah blah blah.
Anyway it is getting late at night so from all that nonsense weird stuff you can find on Google by searching for counter examples to the last theorem of Fermat I crafted 3 pictures. Here is the first one:

I found this retarded question on quora. For me it is hard to process what the person asking this question was actually thinking. Why would the 2.999…. be important? What is this person thinking? Does he have integer solutions to say 2.9 and 2.99 and is this person wondering what would happen if you apply those integer solutions to 2.99999999…..???????

It is retarded, or shallow, on all levels possible. So to honor the math skills of the average human let’s make a new picture of this nonsense:

We will never be intimidated by the stupidity of such questions and simply observe these are our fellow human beings. And if ok, if you are a human being running into tons of problems, in the end you can always wonder ‘Am I a problem myself because I am so stupid?’

If you have figured out that question, you are getting more solid & you look more like a little cube:

I want to end this post on a positive note: Once you understand how stupid humans are you must not view that as a negative. On the contrary, that shows there is room for improvement.