Category Archives: 3D complex numbers

A norm based on the eigenvalues of 3D complex and circular numbers.

Ah, finally it is finished. This work grew longer than expected but with a bit of hindsight that is also logical: for example I spell out in detail once more how to find the eigenvalue functions for a arbitrary number X. After all that is an important detail so it is worth repeating. But I skipped the proces of diagonalization because we do not need it in this post.
Yet if you teach math and the time has come to do the complex number stuff, you could show the students how to diagonalize the complex multiplication for numbers from the complex plane. Most of the time students only diagonalize just one matrix with some numbers in it and that’s all, they never diagonalize an entire family of matrices. So that is why that would be useful, on the other hand the eigenvalues for a number z from the complex plane is z itself and it’s conjugate… And say for yourself: diagonalizing a number z so that later you must multiply the eigenvalues (also z) is very useless, as a matter of fact it is hard to find anything that is more useless… And once you have explained that diag stuff is usefull and utterly un-usefull at the same time, you can point to the live of the average math professor: also utterly useless…

Of course in higher dimensions the proces of diagonalization is very handy because it gives you for example a way of calculating the logarithm of higher dimensional numbers. And that way can be used in any dimension while all other methods for finding a logarithm get more and more difficult (as far as I know).

In this post I also worked out in detail what the eigenvalues of non-invertible numbers are; the non zero numbers with a determinant of zero have at least one eigenvalue being zero. I calcualted the eigenvalues for the numbers tau and alpha for both the complex and circular 3D multiplication.

This is post number 150 so all in all on average I write just about 30 posts a year. That is a cost of about 2ÔéČ per post… ­čśë Luckily this hobby of 3D complex numbers is a rather cheap hobby while at the same time it keeps the mind sharp. A disadvantage is that if it takes me just 5 or 10 minutes to do some calculations with pencil and paper, it often takes 5 to 10 hours before it is turned into a post that is more or less readable for other people… And that is something I value highly; so often you come across sloppy explanations that are not carfully thought through. I don’t like that.

Originally I prepared 10 pictures to write the post on but I had so much text that I started expanding those pictures and in the end I made an 11-th picture to get it all on. So I just expanded those pictures to make the text fit more or less precise of most of them have weird sizes. May be it is better to just stick to the size of 550×775 pixels and just make more of them if needed and not this chaotic expansion on the fly.
Ok, here we go:

I expect that when you made it this far, you already know what the Cauchy/Schwarz inequality is. But in case you never heard of it, please try to understand that beautiful but very simple inequality. Here is a wiki: Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality. Link used: https://brilliant.org/wiki/cauchy-schwarz-inequality/

Ok, this is more or less what I had to say on the subject of crafting a norm from eigenvalues. Don┬┤t forget in the complex plane the square of the norm is also the product of the eigenvalues of a complex number z. So for centuries the math professors are already doing this although I do not think they are aware that they use a product of eigenvalues. For them likely it is just some stuff that is ┬┤Just like Pythagoras┬┤.

End of this post.

Calculation of the circular exponential circle via ‘first principles’.

Oh oh, this is one of those posts where I only calculate in the 3D circular numbers while I classify it as 3D complex numbers. In the past when I made those categories on this website I did not want to have too many categories so that is why I only have 3D complex numbers as a category.

All in all this post (number 146 already) is not extremely important because over the years I have given many proofs that the parametrization for the exponential circle indeed fulfills all those equations like the sphere-cone equation of the fact the determinant is always one. On the other hand, if you have an important mathematical object like the exponential circles, it is always good to have as many proofs as possible. Just like there are many proofs for the theorem of Pythagoras, it would be strange if we only had one proof and nobody cares about more proofs to that theorem that more or less the central to a giant mountain of math.

What do I mean with ‘first principles’? Very simple: that is the summation formula for the exponent of a linear operator or the matrix exponential if you want. In this post I use a somehow slightly different number tau; I use a number tau that gives a period of 2 pi for the exponential circle. The reason is simple: that makes the long calculation much more readable.

Another thing I want to mention is that the long calculation is nine lines long. For myself when I read the works of other people I do not like it if calculations go on and on and on. I always try to avoid too long calculations or I just don’t write posts about them. Almost nobody reads the stuff it it’s too long and gets too complicated so most of the time I simply skip that. Beside that there is always 0% feedback from the mathematical community, so although I always year in year out try to keep it so simple that even math professors can understand it, nothing happens. Just nothing, so after all those years it is not much of a miracle I don’t want to engage with these overpaid weirdo’s at all. Likely if you are born stupid you will die stupid & I have nothing to do with that. Mathematics is not a science that is capable of cleaning itself up, the weirdo’s keep on hanging to their fantastic quaternions and their retarded ideas of what numbers & complex numbers are. Too much money and too much academic titles have not lead to a situation where the science of math is capable of cleaning itself when needed.

Enough of the blah blah blah, after all the physics professors have the same with their electron spin: where is your experimental proof that the electron is a magnetic dipole? For over five years nothing happens except a lot of weird stuff like quantum computers based on electron spin…

This post is five pictures long, for me it was cute to see how those three cosine functions slowly rise from the start of the long calculation. Also of importance is to notice that I had to use the simple formula for cos(a + b) = cos(a)cos(b) – sin(a)sin(b) that comes from the exponential circle in the complex plane. Just once more showing that 3D complex & circular numbers are indeed emerging from the 2D complex plane. Not that the math professional will react, but anyway…

Let’s go to the five pictures:

I think you must calculate them for yourself, grab a pencil and some paper and use the
fact that the circular multiplication uses j to the third power is 1.

Again, this is not a ┬┤very important┬┤ post. Given all those results and proofs from the past it is logical such a long calculation has to exist. It┬┤s relevance lies in the fact you simply cannot have enough proofs for the calculation of parametrizations of the 3D exponential circle.

Let me leave it with that. See you in the next post.

Integration on the complex and circular 3D number spaces.

A lot of math professionals rather likely still think that 3D complex numbers do not exist, may be for reasons like there are non-invertible numbers or whatever what other reason they have. This post more or less proved such views are nonsense; for example a lot of math on the 2D complex plane does not rely on the fact it is a field (and as such only division by zero is forbidden).

But on the 3D complex and circular number spaces indeed it brings some complications if you have non-invertible numbers in the function you want to integrate over a particular curve. And I have to say that problem could be solved by using the special properties that those numbers have. In this post I only show some examples with the non-invertible number alpha (alpha is the midpoint of the 3D exponential circles and all multiples of alpha are also non-invertible so the line through 0 and alpha are all not invertible).

For me writing this was a good distraction away from all that negative news we have day in day, all those countries reporting daily death toll can make you a bit depressed… So when I am through with the daily news I always do some other stuff like calculating a few of such integrals. That is a very good antidote against all that bad news. After all there is not much gained if you constantly think about things you cannot change at all.

This post is relatively long; at first I crafted 12 pictures but it soon turned out that was not enough. So while filling the 12 pictures with the math and the text I expanded some of the pictures so they could contain more math & text. That was not enough and in the end I had to craft two more background pictures. All in all it is 14 pictures long, that is a record length for this website.

If in your own mathematical life you have performed contour integration in the complex plane, you must be able to understand how this works in the 3D spaces. And for those who have done the thing known as u-substitution on the real line: it is just like that but now this u thing is the parametrization of a path. All that stuff below with gamma in it is either the path or the parametrization of that path. Please remark that you must use the complex or the circular multiplication on 3D, just like integrating over a contour in the complex plane uses the 2D complex multiplication.

In case if you are not familiar with the number alpha that is found at the center of the exponential circle, use the search function of this website and for example look up ‘seven properties of the number alpha’.

I hope I have removed all faults, typo’s etc so that later I do not have to repair the math because that is always cumbersome. Here we go: 14 pictures long so this is hard to grasp in detail in just a few hours. But it is beautiful math & that is why I do this. For me math is a lovely hobby.

Enough of the blah blah blah, here we go:

Ok, let┬┤s first hit the button ┬┤Publish┬┤ and see what will happen…
It looks all right but a day after first publication I realized there was some missing text. It turned out I had to rename picture number 2 and now every thing was like it was planned.

Later I will flea through the rest of the text, if needed I will post more addenda. For the time being that was it so till addendums or till the next post.

Integration on the circular and complex 3D number spaces.

Ok, the math text is finally written. It took a long time but all in all I am very satisfied with the result. It will be a long post, I estimate about 12 pictures long and that is more or less a record length on this website. I have finished only two pictures and I will take my time to make the other ones because my mouse does not work properly. When I click with the computer mouse, very often that acts as a double click and that makes making pictures a laborsome task because of all the errors that double clicking gives. And when I have to repeat a series of clicks three or four times before it is ok, it will take some time. May be I should buy a new mouse,

Anyway to make a long story short: For years I stayed more or less away from crafting math about integration because it is hard to find a definition that would work always. My favorite way of using Riemann sums could not work always because of the existence of non-invertible numbers in the 3D spaces. And that gave some mathematical fear in my small human mind because path independence came with that way of Riemann summation. All in all it is beautiful math to think about: For example if in 3D you use a primitive to integrate over a closed loop, is it always zero?

So only the first two pictures are posted and I have no idea when all other pictures are finished. Here we go:

Oh oh, only later I observed a double click problem in this picture…

That was it, till updates.

Just a teaser picture for integration on 3D complex and circular numbers.


It is about time for a small update! Despite all that COVID-19 stuff going round, for myself after all those years I finally tried to put integration on higher dimensional number systems on a more solid footing.
All those years I just refrained from it because you cannot use my favorite Riemann sum approach because of the non-invertible numbers we have in 3D or even higher dimensions.
But now I am trying to finally make some progress and stop avoiding this subject, I find it is utterly beautiful. It has an amazing array of subtle details involved when you have some non-invertible numbers in your integration stuff.
I have no idea when I have finished this rather important detail in my cute theory of higher dimensional complex & circular numbers, so let time be time & in the meantime only post a teaser picture about that lovely integration stuff. In the first lines you see a very familiar integral, likely you have done such calculations in the complex plane. In the case of 3D circular and complex numbers you must (of course) use the multiplication on 3D space to make it all work. Basically you are evaluating (or calculating) three integrals at the same time, just like on the complex plane where you are evaluating two integrals at the same time in your calculation. If you work with a pencil & paper, make sure you have enough paper because all those 3 integrals also have 3 terms in it so your calculations can become quite long…
Here we go:

Please remark this only works for invertible X.

Ok, let me end this update now. Till updates and for some strange reason you must wash your hands while the proper authorities never point to 3D complex numbers… Till updates.

Probability amplitudes on the 3D exponential cones (circular and complex version).

All in all it was a nice day today. Brewing is completed and tomorrow the wort can go into the fermentation bottles and the wonderful process of fermenting can take place. For those of you that also like to brew: A couple of months back I found a cute video explaining that you can also brew beer without cooking it. And I was like seeing water burning or I was like a professional math professor understanding 3D complex numbers for the very first time in their life… Anyway if you are interested search for ‘Raw ale no boil brewing’ on Youtube. It is of interest because if you brew without boiling, only after that you understand what you usually cook away in things that might taste good (or bad).

But let’s go to this post: It is about probability amplitudes as they are used in quantum physics where all those kind of amplitudes are multiplied against their conjugate and that gives a real positive number known as the probability. If you write it in polar coordinates on the complex plane, it is easy to see that those probability amplitudes can have all kinds of phases (the argument of the complex plane number). So for that to work on 3D complex or circular numbers, it would be great if you can write it more or less like the polar coordinates as in the complex plane. And that is easy to do in 3D space: Once you have found and also understand the exponential circles, it is evident that all numbers on those exponential cones are some real multiple of a number from the exponential circle.

As such the numbers found on the exponential cone can be written just like the polar stuff from the complex plane, also now the r as used in polar coordinates can also be negative. That is a strange result because for millions of years we were always indoctrinated by a positive r … ­čśë

Another important difference with the complex plane lies in the fact that the complex plane is closed under addition. That is obvious, but it is also obvious that on a cone it is very different. Most of the time if you add up two numbers you are either inside or outside the cone. But probability amplitudes are always multiplied against their conjugate and added up only later, so we can still use the exponential cone for things like that. I don’t see that ship stranding, so let’s do it.

I also want to remark I am using the so called ‘pull back map’ once more. The professional professors also have a pull back map but that is a very different thing compared to what I use. So don’t be confused by that: the way I use it is to fix higher dimensional exponential circles (and curves) on the exponential circle in the complex plane. (This for fine tuning the period in time and stuff like that, or for understanding why the numbers are what they are: WTF that square root of 3 in it???

This post is 7 pictures long, most are the usual size of 550×775 pixels. At last I want to remark that for myself speaking I do not know if there is any benefit in trying this kind of use of 3D complex and circular numbers. It is funny to think about positive and negative values for r like for example in electron spin or a wave function for the electron pair. But I just do not know if this add any value or that you can use the complex plane only and miss nothing of all you could have learned.

Ok, here we go:

Ok, that was it for this post. Till updates my dear reader.

A new de Moivre identity.

First a household message: In about two weeks time this website should go to new very fast servers. In order for that to work properly I have to do all kinds of things that I have never done before. Stuff like updating PHP. Ok, that does not sound too difficult but as always the work explodes because first I have to backup everything. And before I can backup everyting I need a new ftp account. The only luck is I still have a running ftp client on my own computer…

In case this website is gone in two weeks, somewhere I got lost in the woods. And there is no hurry: this math website is just a hobby of me. An important hobby because it is a bit of exercise for the brain…
End of the household message.

What is the yeast of this post? Historically the de Moivre identity (or theorem) predates the very first exponential circle on the complex plane. If you use the exponential circle, a proof of the de Moivre identity becomes very very easy. In this short post we will use the 3D exponential circle for circular numbers. Two posts back I showed you a possible parametrization via those 3 cosine expressions, in this post we use those parametrizations to formulate a 3D de Moivre identiy.
Because we already have an exponential circle, we do not need to give a rigid math proof for this identity. Once you have and exponential cricle, stuff like that comes for free along with it…

As usual I skipped a lot of things while writing this post. For example I skipped using those modified Dirichlet kernels. I skipped giving the 4D de moivre identity for the 4D complex numbers. All in all I was satisfied to cram this all in a very short post; only three pictures long!
In case you are still reading this while having no clue whatsoever what a de Moivre identiy is, here is some stuff from brilliant.org:
De Moivre’s theorem
Http stuff in the link: https://brilliant.org/wiki/de-moivres-theorem/

Ok, only three pictures long. Here we go:

That was it for this post. If I don’t change plans, in the next post we will look at the 3D exponential cone because on that cone you can do all those quantum probability calculations just like in the 2D complex plane. But before that I have to go though that horrible PHP update…

So see you in the next post or let’s split indefinitely and end this stupid website for no reason at all… ­čśë

Two parametrizations for 3D exponential circles.

It is about high time I post the solution in parametrization form of those five equations from 03 Oct 2019. That is almost 2 months back and oh how ashamed am I for my laziness… But for me math is a hobby, an important hobby but a hobby anyway. So other hobby’s are allowed to interfere with my little math hobby.

This post is 10 pictures long and at the end there is a horrible bad video from the Youtube channel Seeker. Begin this week I crossed that video with an intriguing title; Could These Numbers Unravel New Dimensions in Space? I was just curious but it is that Cohl Furey stuff again. It is an attempt to explain particle physics via complex number, quaternions and octonions… What do they have in common? These number systems are always fields that means all non-zero numbers have an inverse. Why the professional math professors find that so important is unknown to me, it is more like they have nothing else in the toolbox. If you are interested you can find the Cohl Furey video’s on Youtube.

In this post I too write about things that are common in the complex plane, complex and circular 3D numbers and 4D complex numbers. You can use the modified Dirichlet kernels as the building blocks for all possible exponential circles or in the case with 4D complex numbers: the exponential curve (in 4D space the curve is in a 3D hyper plane).

But I also wanted to show you the original cosine solution that I found years ago. To this day it is still amazing that the cosine can pull it off; that the cosine can be a building block for a 3D exponential circle. Next year it will be three decades ago when I found the 3D complex numbers and got interested in them. At present day you can wonder why there is never a healthy response from the math communuty. It is all very logical: if there is no healthy response that means the math community in itself cannot be healthy. It is just a community of perfumed princes and that’s it.

After so much blah blah it is high time to go to the ten pictures:

So from the complex plane in two dimensions to 4D complex space; a binding element is how you can use the modified Dirichlet kernels and their time lags to construct these very interesting parametrizations. Of course there is much more that binds those spaces together; the matrix representations are all very similar, just like the eigen values and eigen vectors. But above 2D it is never a field. And again why the professional math professors have this weird fixation on fields is completely unknown to me.
At last, here is that wonderful video that will make your toes curl

End of this post and thanks for your attention!

Teaser picture for the next post.

After a lot of rainy days it was perfect weather today for the time of the year. It has been 3 weeks already since the last post and it is not that I have been doing nothing but the next post still isn’t finished. I told you that we would be looking at a parametrization that solves all 5 equations from the last post. So let me give you the parametrization in the teaser picture below. I also included the parametrization based on the modified Dirichlet kernels, by all standards the discovery of those modified kernels was one of the biggest discoveries in my study of higher dimensional number systems. To be precise: I found the first modified Dirichlet kernel years ago when I studied the 5D complex space.

In the last post I may have sounded a bit emotional but that is not the case. I am more or less one 100% through with the behavior of the so called math professors. They are incompetent to the bone and although that is not an emotional thing, it is that coward behavior that I do not like in those people. No, if it is highly overpaid, utterly incompetent and on top of that day in day out a coward, better show them the middle finger.

After having said that (I wasn’t expecting an invitation anyway) let’s look at the teaser picture because it is amazing stuff. I remember when I wrote down the parametrization for the very first time. At the time I did not know if the cosine thing would work because say for yourself: if you have a periodic function and you make two time lags of it, how likely is it they will form a flat circle in 3D space? But the cosine together with the two time lags does the trick because it is not hard to prove the parametrization lies in the plane with x + y + z = 1.

Ok, here is the cute parametrization for the 3D exponential circle:

The cosine & the modified Dirichlet kernel parametrizations

I think next week everything is ready so likely I can finally upload the next post. So thanks for your attention and till updates.

The sphere-cone equation in a matrix notation.

It is about time for a new post on 3D numbers, circular and complex. In this post I write the sphere-cone equation in a matrix notation so see the previous post on conjugates if you feel confused. The sphere-cone equation gives us two equations, as the name suggests these are a sphere and a cone and on the intersection we find the famous exponential circle.

Beside the sphere-cone equation I also demand that the determinant equals 1, now we have three equations and every intersection of those 3 equations has as it’s solution the exponential circle. Can it become more crazy? Yes because it is possible to factorize the third degree determinant into a linear and a quadratic factor. Those factors must also be 1 and now we have five equations! And since you can pick 10 pairs out of five, we now have 10 ways of solving for the intersection where the exponential circle lives…

It is strange that after all these years it is still easy to find 10 video’s where so called ‘professional math professors’ sing their praise upon the exponential circle in the complex plane. They really go beserk over the fact that e to the power it gives the cosine and sine thing. And after all those years still silent, yeah yeah those hero’s really deserve the title of honorable shithole… It is honorable because they often have relatively large salaries and they are shitholes because of their brave behavior when it comes to 3D complex numbers. Bah, I am getting a bad taste in my mouth when I think about the behavior of professional math professors. Let me stop writing about that low form of life.

This post is 8 pictures long. May be, I have not decided yet, is the next post about parametrizations of the exponential circle. In these 8 pictures I work out the case for the circular multiplication, that is the case where the imaginary unit j behaves like j^3 = 1. At the end I only give the 3D complex version of the matrix form of the sphere-cone equation and the rest you are supposed to do yourself.

Ok, again do not confuse this with quadratic forms. A matrix equation as written above has a real and two imaginary components while quadratic forms are often just real valued.

Let┬┤s try to upload this stuff. See you in the next post.