# Why can’t I find counter examples to Fermat’s last theorem on the internet?

After a few weeks it is finally dawning on me that it might very well be possible that the professional math people just do not have a clue about how easy it is to find counter examples to the FLT. (FLT = Fermat’s Last Theorem.) That is hard to digest because it is so utterly simple to do and understand on those rings of integers modulo n.
But I did not search long and deep and I skipped places like the preprint archive and only used a bit of the Google thing. And if you use the Google thing of course you get more results from extravert people. That skews the results of course because for extraverts talking is much more important compared to the content of what you are talking or communicating. That is the problem with extraverts; they might be highly social but they pay a severe price for that: their thinking will always be shallow and never some stuff deeply thought through…

As far as I know rings of the integers modulo n are not studied very much. Of course the additive groups modulo n are studied and the multiplicative groups modulo n are studied but when it comes to rings all of a sudden it is silent always everywhere. And now I am looking at it myself I am surprised how much similarity there is between those kind of rings and the 3D complex & circular numbers. Of course they are very different objects of study but you can all chop them in two parts: The numbers that are invertible versus the set of non-invertibles. For example in the ring of integers modulo 15 the prime factors of 15 are 3 and 5. And those prime factors are the non-invertibles inside this ring. This has all kinds of interesting math results, for example take the (exponential) orbit of 3. That is the sequence of powers of 3 like in: 3, 3^2 = 9, 3^3 = 27 = 12 (mod 15), 3^4 = 36 = 6 (mod 15) and 3^5 = 18 = 3. As you see this orbit avoids the number 1 because if it would pass through 1 you would have found an inverse of 3 inside our ring and that is not possible because 3 is a non invertible number…

Likely my next post will be about such stuff, I am still a bit hesitant about it because it is all so utterly simple but you must never underestimate how dumb the overpaid math professors can be: Just neglecting rings modulo n could very well be a common thing over there while in the meantime they try to act as a high IQ person by stating ‘We are doing the Langlands program’ & and more of that advanced blah blah blah.
Anyway it is getting late at night so from all that nonsense weird stuff you can find on Google by searching for counter examples to the last theorem of Fermat I crafted 3 pictures. Here is the first one:

I found this retarded question on quora. For me it is hard to process what the person asking this question was actually thinking. Why would the 2.999…. be important? What is this person thinking? Does he have integer solutions to say 2.9 and 2.99 and is this person wondering what would happen if you apply those integer solutions to 2.99999999…..???????

It is retarded, or shallow, on all levels possible. So to honor the math skills of the average human let’s make a new picture of this nonsense:

We will never be intimidated by the stupidity of such questions and simply observe these are our fellow human beings. And if ok, if you are a human being running into tons of problems, in the end you can always wonder ‘Am I a problem myself because I am so stupid?’

If you have figured out that question, you are getting more solid & you look more like a little cube:

I want to end this post on a positive note: Once you understand how stupid humans are you must not view that as a negative. On the contrary, that shows there is room for improvement.

# The last theorem of Fermat does not hold for the 3D so called Gaussian integers.

On the one hand it is a pity I have to remove the previous post from the top position. Never ever I would have thought that the Voyager probes would be a big help in my quest of proving that electrons are not magnetic dipoles. Electrons are magnetic monopoles, if your local physics professor thinks otherwise why not ask you local physics professor for the experimental evidence there is for the electron magnetism dipole stuff?

On the other hand this post is about Gaussian intergers for the 3D complex and circular numbers and it is with a bit of pride that I can say we have a bunch of beautiful results because the last theorem of Fermat does not hold in these spaces.

The last theorem of Fermat is a kind of negative result, it says that it is impossible for three integers x, y and z that x^n + y^n = z^n, this for integer values of n greater than 2 of course. (For n = 2 I think most readers know it is possible because those are the Pythagoras triples.)

Anyway I succeeded into writing the number 3 as the sum of two Gaussian 3D integers that are also divisors of zero. So this pair of integers, in this post I name them A and T because they are related to the famous 3D numbers alpha and tau, are divisors of zero so as such AT = 0. As such as a denial of the Fermat theorem, an important result as posted here is that A^n + T^n = 3^n. So on the 3D complex & circular numbers this result is possible while if you use only the 2D complex plane and the real line this is not possible…
But there are plenty of spaces where the Fermat conjecture or the last theorem does not hold. A very easy to understand space is the ring of integers modulo 15. In this ring there are numbers that do not have a multiplicative inverse, say 3 and 5. And if inside this ring you multiply 3 and 5 you get 15 and 15 = 0 in this ring… Hence inside this ring we have that 8^n = 3^n + 5^n (mod 15) also contradicting the Fermat stuff.

I did some internet searches like ‘Fermat last theorem and divisors of zero’ but weirdly enough nothing popped up. That was weird because I view the depth of the math results related to this divisor of zero as the depth of a bird bath. It is not a deep result or so, just a few centimeters deep. But sometimes just a few centimeters can bring a human mind into another world. For example a long time ago when I still was as green as grass back in the year 1986 I came across the next excercise: Calulate the rest of 103 raised to 103 and divided by 13. I was puzzled, after all 103^103 is a giant number so how can you find the rest after dividing it by 13? But if you give that cute problem a second thought, after all that is also bird bath deep because you can solve it with your human brain…

This post is 11 pictures long, all of the standard size of 550×775 pixels. Because I could not find anything useful about the last Fermat theorem combined with divisors of zero I included a small addendum so all in all this post is 12 pictures long.

After so much Gaussian integer stuff, there is only one addendum about the integers modulo 30. In that ring you can also find some contradictions to the standard way of presenting the last theorem of Fermat.

Ok, if you are still fresh after all that modulo 30 stuff, for reasons of trying to paint an overall picture let me show you a relatively good video on the Kummer stuff. Interesting in this video is that Kummer used the words `Ideal numbers´ and at present stuff like that is known as an ideal. For myself speaking I never use the word ´ideal´ for me these are ´multiplicative attractors´ because if a number of such an ideal multiplies a number outside that ideal, the result is always inside that ideal. Here is a relatively good video:

And now you are at the end of this post. Till updates.

# The total differential for the complex plane & the 3D and 4D complex numbers.

I am rather satisfied with the approach of doing the same stuff on the diverse complex spaces. In this case the 2D complex plane and the 3D & 4D complex number systems. By doing it this way it is right in your face: a lot of stuff from the complex plane can easily be copied to higher dimensional complex numbers. Without doubt if you would ask a professional math professor about 3D or higher dimensional complex numbers likely you get a giant batagalization process to swallow; 3D complex numbers are so far fetched and/or exotic that it falls outside the realm of standard mathematics. “Otherwise we would have used them since centuries and we don’t”. Or words of similar phrasing that dimishes any possible importance.

But I have done the directional derivative, the factorization of the Laplacian with Wirtinger derivatives and now we are going to do the total differential precisely as you should expect from an expansion of the century old complex plane. There is nothing exotic or ‘weird’ about it, the only thing that is weird are the professional math professors. But I have given up upon those people years ago, so why talk about them?

In the day to day practice it is a common convention to use so called straight d‘s to denote differentiation if you have only one variable. Like in a real valued function f(x) on the real line, you can write df/dx for the derivative of such a function. If there are more then one variable the convention is to use those curly d’s to denote it is partial differentiation with respect to a particular variable. So for example on the complex plane the complex variable z = x + iy and as such df/dz is the accepted notation while for differentiation with respect to x and y you are supposed to write it with the curly d notation. This practice is only there when it comes to differentiation, the opposite thing is integration and there only straight d‘s are used. If in the complex plane you are integrating with respect to the real component x you are supposed to use the dx notation and not the curly stuff.
Well I thought I had all of the notation stuff perfectly figured out, oh oh how ultrasmart I was… Am I writing down the stuff for the 4D complex numbers and I came across the odd expression of dd. I hope it does not confuse you, in the 4D complex number system I always write the four dimensional numbers as Z = a + bl + cl^2 + dl^3 (the fourth power of the imaginary unit l must be -1, that is l^4 = -1, because that defines the behavior of the 4D complex numbers) so inside Z there is a real variable denoted as d. I hope this lifts the possible confusion when you read dd

More on the common convention: In the post on the factorization of the Laplacian with Wirtinger derivatives I said nothing about it. But in case you never heard about the Wirtinger stuff and looked it up in some wiki’s or whatever what, Wirtinger derivatives are often denoted with the curly d‘s so why is that? That is because Wirtinger derivatives are often used in the study of multi-variable complex analysis. And once more that is just standard common convention: only if there is one variable you can use a straight d. If there are more variable you are supposed to write it with the curly version…

At last I want to remark that the post on the factorization of the Laplacian got a bit long: in the end I needed 15 pictures to publish the text and I worried a bit that it was just too long for the attention span of the average human. In the present years there is just so much stuff to follow, for most people it is a strange thing to concentrate on a piece of math for let’s say three hours. But learning new math is not an easy thing: in your brain all kind of new connections need to be formed and beside a few hours of time that also needs sleep to consolidate those new formed connections. Learning math is not a thing of just spending half an hour, often you need days or weeks or even longer.

This post is seven pictures long, have fun reading it and if you get to tired and need a bit of sleep please notice that is only natural: the newly formed connetions in your brain need a good night sleep.

Here we go with the seven pictures:

Yes, that’s it for this post. Sleep well and think well & see you in the next post. (And oh oh oh a professional math professor for the first time in his or her life they calculate the square Z^2 of a four dimensional complex number; how many hours of sleep they need to recover from that expericence?)
See ya in the next post.

# Factorization of the Laplacian (for 2D, 3D and 4D complex numbers).

Originally I wanted to make an oversight of all ways the so called Dirac quantization condition is represented. That is why in the beginning of this post below you can find some stuff on the Dirac equation and the four solutions that come with that equation. Anyway, Paul Dirac once managed to factorize the Laplacian operator, that was needed because the Laplacian is part of the Schrödinger equation that gives the desired wave functions in quantum mechanics. Well I had done that too once upon a time in a long long past and I remembered that the outcome was highly surprising. As a matter of fact I consider this one of the deeper secrets of the higher dimensional complex numbers. Now I use a so called Wirtinger derivative; for example on the space of 3D complex numbers you take the partial derivatives into the x, y and z direction and from those three partial derivatives you make the derivative. And once you have that, if you feed it a function you simply get the derivative of such a function.

Now such a Wirtinger derivative also has a conjugate and the surprising result is that if you multiply such a Wirtinger derivative against it’s conjugate you always get either the Laplacian or in the case of the 3D complex numbers you get the Laplacian multiplied by the famous number alpha.

That is a surprising result because if you multiply an ordinary 3D number X against it’s conjugate you get the equation of a sphere and a cone like thing. But if you do it with parital differential operators you can always rewrite it into pure Laplacians so there the cones and spheres are the same things…

In the past I only had it done on the space of 3D numbers so I checked it for the 4D complex numbers and in about 10 minutes of time I found out it also works on the space of 4D complex numbers. So I started writing this post and since I wanted to build it slowly up from 2D to 4D complex numbers it grew longer than expected. All in all this post is 15 pictures long and given the fact that people at present day do not have those long timespan of attention anymore, may be it is too long. I too have this fault, if you hang out on the preprint archive there is just so much material that often after only five minutes of reading you already go to another article. If the article is lucky, at best it gets saved to my hard disk and if the article has more luck in some future date I will read it again. For example in the year 2015 I saved an article that gave an oversight about the Dirac quantization condition and only now in 2020 I looked at it again…

The structure of this post is utterly simple: On every complex space (2D, 3D and 4D) I just give three examples. The examples are named example 1, 2 and not surprising I hope, example 3. These example are the same, only the underlying space of complex numbers varies. In each example number 1 I define the Wirtinger derivative, in example 2 I take the conjugate while in the third example on each space I multiply these two operators and rewrite the stuff into Laplacians. The reason this post is 15 pictures long lies in the fact that the more dimensions you have in your complex numbers the longer the calculations get. So it goes from rather short in the complex plane (the 2D complex numbers) to rather lengthy in the space of 4D complex numbers.

At last I would like to remark that those four simultanious solutions to the Dirac equation it once more shouts at your face: electrons carry magnetic charge and they are ot magnetic dipoles! All that stuff like the Pauli matrices where Dirac did build his stuff upon is sheer difficult nonsense: the interaction of electron spin with a magnetic field does not go that way. The only reason people in the 21-th century think it has some merits is because it is so complicated and people just loose oversight and do not see that it is bogus shit from the beginning till the end. Just like the math professors that neatly keep themselves stupid by not willing to talk about 3D complex numbers. Well we live in a free world and there are no laws against being stupid I just guess.

Enough of the blah blah blah, below are the 15 pictures. And in case you have never ever heard about a thing known as the Wirtinger derivative, try to understand it and may be come back in five or ten years so you can learn a bit more…
As usual all pictures are 550×775 pixels in size.

Oh oh the human mind and learning new things. If a human brain learns new things like Cauchy-Riemann equations or the above factoriztion of the Laplacian, a lot of chages happen in the brain tissue. And it makes you tired and you need to sleep…
And when you wake up, a lot of people look at their phone and may be it says: Wanna see those new pictures of Miley Cyrus showing her titties? And all your new learned things turn into insignificance because in the morning what is more important compared to Miley her titties?

Ok my dear reader, you are at the end of this post. See you in the next post.

# The directional derivative (for 3D & 4D complex numbers).

A couple of days ago all of a sudden while riding my bicycle I calculated what the so called directional derivative is for 3D & 4D complex numbers. And it is a cute calculation but I decided not to write a post about it. After all rather likely I had done stuff like that many years ago.

Anyway a day later I came across a few Youtube video’s about the directional derivative and all those two guys came up with was an inner product of the gradient and a vector. Ok ok that is not wrong or so, but that is only the case for scalar valued functions on say 3D space. A scalar field as physics people would say it. The first video was from the Kahn academy and the guy from 3Blue1Brown has been working over there lately. It is amazing that just one guy can lift such a channel up in a significant manner. The second video was from some professional math professor who went on talking a full 2.5 hour about the directional derivative of just a scalar field. I could not stand it; how can you talk so long about something that is so easy to explain? Now I do not blame that math professor, may be he was working in the USA and had to teach first year math students. Now in the USA fresh students are horrible at math because in the USA the education before the universities is relatively retarded.

Furthermore I tried to remember when I should have done the directional derivative. I could not remember it and in order to get rid of my annoyance I decided to write a small post about it. Within two hours I was finished resulting in four pictures of the usual 550×775 pixel size. So when I work hard I can produce say 3 to 4 pictures in two hours of time. I did not know that because most of the time I do not work that fast or hard. After all this is supposed to be a hobby so most of my writing is done in a relaxed way without any hurry. I have to say that may be I should have taken a bit more time at the end where the so called Cauchy-Riemann equations come into play. I only gave the example for the identiy function and after that jumped to the case of a general function. May be for the majority of professional math professors that is way to fast, but hey just the simple 3D complex numbers are ‘way to fast’ for those turtles in the last two centuries…

Anyway, here is the short post of only 4 pictures:

Should I have made the explanation longer? After all so often during the last years I have explained that the usual derivative f'(X) is found by differentiating into the direction of the real numbers. At some point in time I have the right to stop explaining that 1 + 1 = 2.

Also I found a better video from the Kahn academy that starts with a formal definition of the directional derivative:

At last let me remark that this stuff easily works for vector valued functions because in the above limit you only have to subtract two vectors and that is always allowed in any vector space. And only if you hang in a suitable multiplication like the complex multiplication of 3D or 4D real space you can tweak it like in the form of picture number 4 above.

That was all I had for you today, this is post number 166 already so I am wondering if this website is may be becoming too big? If people find something, can they find what they are searching for or do they get lost in the woods? So see you in another post, take care of yourself & till the next post.

# On the work of Shlomo Jacobi & a cute more or less new Euler identity.

For a couple of years I have a few pdf files in my possession written by other people about the subject of higher dimensional complex and circular numbers. In the post we will take a look at the work of Shlomo Jacobi, the pdf is not written by him because Shlomo passed away before it was finished. It is about the 3D complex numbers so it is about the main subject of this website.

On a novel 3D hypercomplex number system

Weirdly enough if you search for ‘3D hypercomplex number’ the above pdf does not pop up at all at the preprint archive. But via his name (Shlomo Jacobi) I could find it back. Over the years I have found three other people who have written about complex numbers beyond the 2D complex plane. I consider the work of Mr. Jacobi to be the best so I start with that one. So now we are with four; four people who have looked at stuff like 3D complex numbers. One thing is directly curious: None of them is a math professional, not even a high school teacher or something like that. I think that when you are a professional math professor and you start investigating higher dimensional complex numbers; you colleagues will laugh about it because ‘they do not exist’. And in that manner it are the universities themselves that ensure they are stupid and they stay stupid. There are some theorems out there that say a 3D complex field is not possible. That is easy to check, but the math professionals make the mistake that they think 3D complex numbers are not possible. But no, the 2-4-8 theorem of say Hurwitz say only a field is not possible or it says the extension of 2D to 3D is not possible. That’s all true but it never says 3D complex numbers are not possible…

Because Shlomo Jacobi passed away an unknown part of the pdf is written by someone else. So for me it is impossible to estimate what was found by Shlomo but is left out of the pdf. For example Shlomo did find the Cauchy-Riemann equations for the 3D complex numbers but it is only in an epilogue at the end of the pdf.

The content of the pdf can be used for a basic introduction into the 3D complex numbers. It’s content is more or less the ‘algebra approach’ to 3D complex numbers while I directly and instantly went into the ‘analysis approach’ bcause I do not like algebra that much. The pdf contains all the basic stuff: definition of a 3D complex number, the inverse, the matrix representation and stuff he names ‘invariant spaces’. Invariant spaces are the two sets of 3D complex numbers that make up all the non-invertible numbers. Mr. Jacobi understands the concept of divisors of zero (a typical algebra thing that I do like) and he correctly indentifies them in his system of ‘novel hypercomplex numbers’. There is a rudimentary approach towards analysis found in the pdf; Mr. Jacobi defines three power series named sin1, sin2 and sin3 . I remember I looked into stuff like that myself and somewhere on this website it must be filed under ‘curves of grace’.

A detail that is a bit strange is the next: Mr. Jacobi found the exponential circle too. He litarally names it ‘exponential circle’ just like I do. And circles always have a center, they have a midpoint and guess how he names that center? It is the number alpha…

Because Mr. Jacobi found the exponential circle I applaud him long and hard and because he named it’s center the number alpha, at the end I included a more or less new Euler identity based on a very simple property of the important number alpha: If you square alpha it does not change. Just like the square of 1 is 1 and the square of 0 is 0. Actually ‘new’ identity is about five years old, but in the science of math that is a fresh result.

The content of this post is seven pictures long, please read the pdf first and I hope that the mathematical parts of your brain have fun digesting it all. Most pictures are of the standard size of 550×775 pixels.

Ok ok, may be you need to turn this into exponential circles first in order to craft the proof that a human brain could understand. And I am rolling from laughter from one side of the room to the other side; how likely is it that professional math professors will find just one exponential circle let alone higher dimensional curves?

I have to laugh hard; that is a very unlikely thing.

End of this post, see you around & see if I can get the above stuff online.

# Two videos & a short intro to the next post on 4D complex numbers.

I found an old video (what is ‘old’, it is from Jan 2019) and I decided to hang it in the website because it has such a beautiful introduction. The title of the video is The Secret of the Seventh Row. Seldom you see such a perfect introduction and I hope you will be intrigued too when you for the first time see the secret of the seventh row…

Now before I started brewing beer I often made wine. That was a hobby that started when I was a student. In the past it was much more easy to buy fruit juice that was more or less unprocessed, like 100% grape juice for 50 cents a liter. And with some extra sugar and of course yeast in a relatively short time you have your fresh batch of 20 liters wine. And somewhere from the back of my mind it came floating above that I had seen such irregularities arising from wine bottles if you stack them horizontal. But I never knew it had a solution like shown in the video.

Video title: The secret of the 7th row – visually explained

The next video is from Alexander Unzicker, the vid is only five minutes long. First I want to remark that I like Alexander a lot because he more or less tries to attack the entire standard model of physics. That not only is a giant task but you also must have some alternative that is better. For example when I talk or write about electrons not being magnetic dipoles, I never end in some shouting match but I just apply logic.

Let me apply some logic: In the Stern Gerlach experiment a beam of silver atoms is split in two by an inhomeogenous magnetic field. The magnetic field is stronger at one side and weaker at the other. One of the beams goes to the stronger side while the other goes to the weaker side of the applied magnetic field. But the logical consequence of this is that the stream silver atoms going to the weaker side gains potential energy. This is not logical. If you go outside and you throw a few stones horizontal, they always will fall to the earth and there is the lowest potential energy. The stones never fly up and accelerate until they are in space. In order to gain the logical point it is enough to assume that electrons are magnetic monopoles and that is what makes one half of the beam of silver atoms go to the weaker side of the applied magnetic field. If the electrons come in two varieties, either monopole north or monopole south, both streams do what the rest of nature does: striving for the lowest energy state.

Talking about energy states: Did you know that the brain of math professors is just always in the lowest energy state possible?

But back to the video: Alexander is always stating that often when progress is made in physics, all in all things become more easy to understand. That also goes for electrons, all that stuff about electrons being magnetic dipoles is just very hard to understand; why do they gain potential energy?

In his video Alexander gives a bad space as example where a so called three sphere is located. On the quaternions you cannot differentiate nor integrate, they are handy when it comes to rotations but that’s more or less all there is. So Alexander I don’t think you will make much progress in physics if you start to study the quaternions. And by the way don’t all physics people get exited when they can talk about ‘phase shifts’? They use it all the time and explain a wide variety of things with it. I lately observed Sabine Hossenfelder explaining the downbreak of quantum super positions into the pure ground states (the decoherence) as done by a bunch of phase shifts that make all probabilities of super positions go to zero. Well, the 4D complex numbers have a so called exponential curve and voila; with that thing you can phase shift your stuff anyway you want…

Video title: Simplicity in Physics and How I became a Mathematician

Yesterday I started working on the next post. It is all not extremely difficult but ha ha ha may be I over estimate my average reader. After all it is about the non-invertible numbers in the space of four dimensional complex numbers. The stuff that physics and math professors could not find for centuries… So you will never hear people like Alexander Unzicker talk about stuff like that, they only talk in easy to understand common places like the quaternions. And when I come along with my period of now about 18 years completely jobless, of course I understand the high lords of all the universities have more important things to do. All these professors are just soooooo important, they truly cannot react on social slime that is unemployed for decades. I understand that, but I also understand that if such high ranked people try to advance physics with the study of quaternions, the likelihood of success is infinetisimal small…

Anyway, here is a teaser picture for an easy to understand problem: if two squares are equal, say A^2 = B^2, does that always mean that either A = B or that A = -B?

In another development for decades I always avoided portraits and photo’s of myself on the internet at all costs. Of course after 911 that was the most wise strategy: you stay online but nobody know how you look. But over the years this strategy has completely eroded, if for example I just take a walk at some silly beach about 30 km away people clearly recognize me. So I more or less surrender, likely I will still try to prevent my head being on some glossy and contacts with journalists in general will also be avoided for decades to come.
But in the present times why not post a selfportrait with a mask?

The upper half of the picture below is modified in the ‘The Scream’ style and the lower half is modified with something known as ‘vertical lines’.

Ok, that was it for this post.

# The 4D Dirichlet kernel related to the 4D Fourier series.

Is the glass half full or half empty? You can argue that it is half full because the so called ‘pure tones’ as introduced in the previous post work perfectly for making a four dimensional Fourier series based on the 4D complex numbers. The glass is half empty because I started this Fourier stuff more or less in order to get some real world applications done, but 1 dimensional signals like a sound fragment do not reconstruct properly.

Why do they not reconstruct properly? Well often you need to take the sum or the difference of a 4D complex number Z and it’s conjugate that I write as Z* (because I cannot do ‘overline’ in this text mode). But the sum or the difference of such 4D numbers removes only the real part or the second imaginary part. The first and third imaginary parts stay in this sum or difference, this stuff is what makes the reconstruction of a signal s(t) going wrong.

Yet I was not crazy, as far as the reconstruction works it does it more or less as expected only you get only half of the signal reconstructed. That is not that worse but the garbage that enters the reconstruction is what makes this kind of making a 4D Fourier series something that will never have any practical benefit. But again does that mean the glass is half empty?

I remember that a long time ago in something like 1991 or 1992 I had found the product of a 3D complex number X and it’s conjugate X*. My naive idea was that this should only give the unit sphere in 3D space, but this product that also two imaginary components that I considered garbage at the time. Back in the time, it was just before the internet era, I could not know that this ‘garbage’ was actually the equation of a cone. And if you intersect this cone with the unit sphere in the space of 3D complex numbers, you get the 3D exponential circle. So it wasn’t garbage, it was the main prize in 3D complex number theory.
Back in the time in 1991 it was stuped from me to expect the 3D complex numbers would behave ‘just like’ the two dimensional complex numbers from the complex plane. May be in this year 2020 I am making the same mistake again by expecting a 4D kind of Fourier series must behave ‘the same’ as those defined on the real line (the original Joseph Fourier proposal) and the more advanced version from the complex plane.

With the 4D Dirichlet kernel just like with the 2D Dirichlet kernel from the complex plane, you must take the difference of a number and it’s conjugate. In the complex plane this makes the real component zero and this difference is just an imaginary number. The 2D Dirichlet kernel is the quotient of two such imaginary numbers and as such it is always a real number. For the 4D Dirichlet kernel stuff is not that easy but for me it was surprising that you can show relatively easy the 4D Dirichlet kernel has to be a ‘self conjugate’ number. That means Z = Z* (on the complex plane when you have a number z such that z = z* it means it is a real number).

This post is 8 pictures long, 7 of them have the standard size of 55×775 pixels but I had to make one picture both a bit more broad and higher in order to get the math fitting in it. Ok, let’s upload the math pictures with the stuff around the 4D Dirichlet kernel.

Ok, credits have to go to where that is deserved. I remember that back in the time like in 1990 I found it relatively hard to calculate the 2D Dirichlet kernel. It took me over 15 or 20 minutes but again: that was before the internet era. Yet at present day I was all so simple and why was that? That is because there is a nice Youtube video doing the easy stuff, it is from ‘Flameable math’:

May be at the end I can say the glass is half full because now this reconstruction stuff does not work properly, luckily I do not have to construct the Fejer kernel for 4D complex numbers…
Ok, let’s call it a day and let me end this post.

# Cute search engine results found & intro 4D Fourier series.

About a week ago I started investigating how you could craft a Fourier series using the coordinate functions of the 4D exponential curve. The usual way the series of Joseph Fournier are done is with the sine and cosine that are also the building blocks of the exponential circle on the complex plane. So I needed to look up my own work on the 4D complex numbers because in the beginning of 2019 I stopped writing posts about them and after such a long time not every detail is fresh in your brain of course.
Anyway I did a Google search on 4D complex numbers and to my surprise this website popped up above where the quaternions were ranked. I was ranked number one. That was a great victory of course, it means that people are actually reading this stuff… In one of the screen shots below you see the quaternions once more topping my 4D complex numbers but from day to day it seems that Google is shuffeling the top results a bit so the search results look a bit more dynamic on a day to day basis.

This year I didn’t look at the search engine stuff at all, we still have that corona stuff going on and beside that why look at such boring stuff if I can do math instead? But I could not resist and went to the Microsoft Bing search engine. For years they never ranked this website on page 1 if you searched for ‘3D complex numbers’. But all those years if you looked into the picture search of the Bing search engine a giant fraction of the pictures was from this website. That was very strange, how can you return so much pictures from my website while never mentioning me at any significant position in the rankings of the html files? Ok ok most people say Bing is an inferior search engine compared to the Google search engine and as such not many people use the bing thing.

So once more and for the first time in this year 2020 I searched for ‘3D complex numbers’ on the Microsoft search engine. To my surprise instead of being burried down deep on say page 10, at Microsoft they had seen the light. Here is a screen shot:

In the next screen shot you see the html listing of Google when you search for 4D complex numbers. Today when I made the screen shot I was not ranked at no 1 but for some strange reason that did not make me cry like a baby in distress.

And the last screen shot is about the Google thing for pictures when you search for four dimensional complex numbers. Luckily there is no competition but does that mean the rest of humanity is stupid as hell?

Of course not, it only means no one is interested in crafting 4D complex numbers for themselves. Professional math professors don’t want to talk about 4D complex numbers in public, so why are my internet search engine rankings that high? It might be that it is read by non math professors and that more or less explains the high rankings…

Ok, it is now 22 June and I finally wrote down what the new way of Fourier series is using the 4D exponential curve. Writing of the next post is almost finsihed and I think I am going to do it just like Joseph Fourier did. That is without any proof at al for the most important things…

Anyway, in the nexgt picture you see the Fourier series in a 4D style:

It could ber handy to look at the end of an old post from 01 Nov 2019, there I show you how you can use the modified Dirichlet kernels for finding parametrizations of the exponential circles & curves in 2, 3 and 4 dimensions. If it is possible to craft a 4D Fourier series (again this is only postulated so there is no proof at this date) you surely must try to understand the 4D modified Diriclet kernel…

# A norm based on the eigenvalues of 3D complex and circular numbers.

Ah, finally it is finished. This work grew longer than expected but with a bit of hindsight that is also logical: for example I spell out in detail once more how to find the eigenvalue functions for a arbitrary number X. After all that is an important detail so it is worth repeating. But I skipped the proces of diagonalization because we do not need it in this post.
Yet if you teach math and the time has come to do the complex number stuff, you could show the students how to diagonalize the complex multiplication for numbers from the complex plane. Most of the time students only diagonalize just one matrix with some numbers in it and that’s all, they never diagonalize an entire family of matrices. So that is why that would be useful, on the other hand the eigenvalues for a number z from the complex plane is z itself and it’s conjugate… And say for yourself: diagonalizing a number z so that later you must multiply the eigenvalues (also z) is very useless, as a matter of fact it is hard to find anything that is more useless… And once you have explained that diag stuff is usefull and utterly un-usefull at the same time, you can point to the live of the average math professor: also utterly useless…

Of course in higher dimensions the proces of diagonalization is very handy because it gives you for example a way of calculating the logarithm of higher dimensional numbers. And that way can be used in any dimension while all other methods for finding a logarithm get more and more difficult (as far as I know).

In this post I also worked out in detail what the eigenvalues of non-invertible numbers are; the non zero numbers with a determinant of zero have at least one eigenvalue being zero. I calcualted the eigenvalues for the numbers tau and alpha for both the complex and circular 3D multiplication.

This is post number 150 so all in all on average I write just about 30 posts a year. That is a cost of about 2€ per post… 😉 Luckily this hobby of 3D complex numbers is a rather cheap hobby while at the same time it keeps the mind sharp. A disadvantage is that if it takes me just 5 or 10 minutes to do some calculations with pencil and paper, it often takes 5 to 10 hours before it is turned into a post that is more or less readable for other people… And that is something I value highly; so often you come across sloppy explanations that are not carfully thought through. I don’t like that.

Originally I prepared 10 pictures to write the post on but I had so much text that I started expanding those pictures and in the end I made an 11-th picture to get it all on. So I just expanded those pictures to make the text fit more or less precise of most of them have weird sizes. May be it is better to just stick to the size of 550×775 pixels and just make more of them if needed and not this chaotic expansion on the fly.
Ok, here we go:

I expect that when you made it this far, you already know what the Cauchy/Schwarz inequality is. But in case you never heard of it, please try to understand that beautiful but very simple inequality. Here is a wiki: Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality. Link used: https://brilliant.org/wiki/cauchy-schwarz-inequality/

Ok, this is more or less what I had to say on the subject of crafting a norm from eigenvalues. Don´t forget in the complex plane the square of the norm is also the product of the eigenvalues of a complex number z. So for centuries the math professors are already doing this although I do not think they are aware that they use a product of eigenvalues. For them likely it is just some stuff that is ´Just like Pythagoras´.

End of this post.